Hepatitis A Virus and Helicobacter pylori among Schoolchildren at Sana’a -Yemen: Seroprevalence and Risk Factors
Background and Objectives: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are very common diseases, especially in developing countries and both have a similar route of transmission and epidemiology. In Yemen, data is not available about these types of infections. Therefore, the current study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors of HAV and H. pylori infections among schoolchildren in Sana'a city, Yemen. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from August to October 2022 among one hundred and eighty-seven (187) schoolchildren in Sana’a city- Yemen. A designed questionnaire was used to gather the required data. Also, the blood specimens were screened for HVA and H. pylori antibodies using a qualitative rapid test by cassette technique, and positive results were confirmed by ELISA technique. Result: Out of 187 studies screened, the seropositivity rate of HAV and H. pylori were 5(2.7%) and 23(12.3%), respectively. The higher rate of seroprevalence of HAV and H. pylori infections were detected among male students at 5.2% and 12.4%, respectively, in age groups of 5-8 and 9-12 years, respectively, and parents hold primary and secondary certificates (27.6%) and H. pylori (14.4%), respectively. Also, the seroprevalence of HAV and H. pylori was higher observed among students who drank untreated water, rarely bought foods from mobile vendors, sometimes ate foods outside of the home, didn’t have contact with flooding water, didn’t have a history of hepatitis A and no one of their family infected by hepatitis A, had a history of a blood transfusion, and non-vaccinated and vaccinated study subjects, respectively. The positive results were confirmed by ELISA and revealed that the seropositivity rate of anti-HAV-IgM was 4.17% and anti-H. pylori-IgG (8.7%) and anti-H. pylori-IgM (100%). Conclusion: The high seroprevalence of these infections is serious and life-threatening health condition in the community. Therefore, major efforts are still necessary to avoid both morbidity and mortality of susceptible individuals.