Cryptosporidium parvum among Cancer and Hemodialysis Patients in Ibb City, Yemen: Prevalence and Risk Factors
Background: Cryptosporidium parvum is an opportunistic gastrointestinal parasite that cause serious problems for immunocompromised patients. Aims: This study aimed to report on the prevalence of C. parvum among cancer and hemodialysis patients attending cancer and dialysis centers at Al-Thawra hospital in Ibb city, Yemen. Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study conducted among 60 patients with cancer and hemodialysis patients during the period from March to September 2020. The stool specimen was from each patient and C. parvum was screened by using formalin-ether sedimentation and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining. The required data were surveyed by a structured questionnaire. Results: Out of 60 stool specimens, only 49(81.7%) were positive for C. parvum infection. The cancer patients had more rate of C. parvum (90%) than hemodialysis patients (73.3%). Also, the highest rate of C. parvum was observed among male participants with cancer (95%) and hemodialysis (76.9%) diseases. The higher frequency of infection was among hemodialysis patients in the age group of 31-40 years. The cancer patients coming from rural areas and hemodialysis patients coming from urban areas had a higher rate of C. parvum infection. the majority of patients drinking from well water were positive for C. parvum infection. Both cancer and hemodialysis patients with poor personal behavior were more exposed to C. parvum infection. Diarrhea, abdominal pain, malaise, poor appetite, nausea, and fever were the most frequent clinical features presented among cancer and hemodialysis patients. Similarly, all cases were completely (100%) found to be suffering from recurrent diarrhea. Conclusion: It can be concluded that health education and awareness programs should be implemented directing immunocompromised individuals for preventing and controlling the transmission of opportunistic parasites.